(The whole man)
(Dug sentence by sentence from books.google.com)
Reason, Social Myths and Democracy
By Sidney Hook
Another expression of Marx's humanism is to be found in his ideal of the whole man. Under conditions of modern life, there are two kinds of specialization — one freely chosen by individuals who seek appropriate outlets for their creative energy, and the other imposed upon man by the uncontrolled machine process and the necessity of earning a living. The second kind of specialization reduces man, so to speak, to a part of himself, it depersonalizes him, and leads him to think of his life as beginning just where his work ends. The individual thus finds his life segmentized so that there is no commerce between his desires and his deeds, his play and his labor, his ambition and his opportunities. The natural process of growth is replaced by accidental shifts of energy and interest which build no meaningful pattern. Sooner or later, the worker finds himself, when not unemployed and at loose ends, sunk into a mechanical routine whose monotony is punctuated by bursts of passion against whatever scapegoats convention, and those who interpret so-called public opinion, create for him. Or he lives in the dimension of make believe which requires no active participation of any kind on his part.
Marx's ideal of the whole man entails a conception of labor which gratifies a natural bent at the same time that it fulfills a social need. In this way what appears in our present social context as onerous drudgery is capable of acquiring a dignified status. Welcoming, as he does, the division of labor because it makes possible those levels of productivity in the absence of which there can be no equality of abundance, Marx is distrustful of the psychological effects of over-specializations of any kind, even those voluntarily acquired. An artist who can paint but cannot think, a thinker at home with abstractions but blind to color and deaf to sound, an engineer aware of the slightest flaw in steel and stone but insensitive to the subtle and complex character of human relationships, indeed, any individual who can do a particular job well and nothing else — all these for Marx are creatures who are only partly men.
It is patent that Marx was overly optimistic about the potentialities of creative achievement in men, both as individuals and as a collecitvity. Always partial to the great classic ideals of antiquity, he adapted to an age of scientific technology the Greek conception of harmonious, all-around self-development. He does not, however, expect men to be revolutionized by doctrinal conversion or by education in a society which sharply separates school from life. In an early philosophic work, he writes, "By work man transforms nature," and adds in Capital, "By transforming nature [and society], man transforms himself." The process is gradual but neither automatic, inevitable nor universal.
Sidney Hook着 金克、徐崇温译
马克思的人道主义的另一种表现见之于他的关于整体人(the whole man)的理想。在现代生活的条件下，有两种的专门化：一种是由那些为其创造性的精力寻找适当出路的个人所自由地选择的，而另一种则是由不受管束的机器过程的谋生的必要所强加于人的。第二种专门化，好比把人降为他的一部分，它使他非人化，并使得他设想他的生活恰恰是在他工作终止的时候才开始的。这样个人就发现他的生活被割裂了，从而在他的愿望和行动之间，在他游戏和劳动之间，在他的雄心壮志和机会之间都没有了联系交往。成长的自然过程便为精力和兴趣的偶然转移所代替，而这种转移并不造成富有意义的类型。工人迟早会发现，当他自己不是失业和无定职时，是沉溺于机械式的例行工作之中，而其单调性只是为反对任何作为替罪羊的、以及那些解释所谓舆论的人为他造出来的惯例的激情进发所打断。要不然他就生活在无需他任何一种积极参与的虚伪世界里。